- Faculty and Research
- News and Events
- Post-graduate Programs
- Undergraduate Programs
- Facilities and Technology
- Jobs and Vacancies
The scientific work conducted at the MRC Mitochondrial Biology Unit has served as inspiration for public exhibitions through engagement with artists and designers. Visualization is an integrated part of our research process, and even though we produce state-of-the-art images for scientific use and for journal publications, we strongly believe that through engagement with artists and designers we form valuable ways of making the microscopic world more understandable to a wider public. At the MRC Mitochondrial Biology Unit we are very aware of the importance of artistic interpretation of our scientific ideas and results, and we are highly committed to this kind of public engagement. We have had a considerable degree of success in collaborating with artists and designers, and new projects are already being planned.
The festival this year saw the premiere of three new animations. The first animation shows all of the major organelles of the human cell, including a dynamic network of mitochondria that are involved in fusion and fission events. The basic structure of a mitochondrion with the inner and outer membrane and cristae is also explained. The second one illustrates some of the major events of energy conversion at the mitochondrial inner membrane, featuring isocitrate dehydrogenase, Complex I, ATP synthase, mitochondrial transport proteins, the voltage gated anion channel, and hexokinase. The third animation explains the functional domains of ATP synthase; the catalytic domains, the central rotary axis and the stator domain.
To highlight the central role that mitochondria play in cellular energy metabolism, we produced an animation showing the breakdown of a simple sugar molecule; from its uptake in the intestine to the series of energy conversion steps that lead to the synthesis of ATP in the mitochondrial matrix. After the sugar molecule enters the blood stream in the intestine, it is taken up by the human cell and undergoes a series of breakdown reactions in the cytoplasm of the cell to form pyruvate, which is subsequently transported into the mitochondrion (see figure below). A further series of reactions inside the mitochondrion converts the chemical energy stored in pyruvate into a membrane potential across the mitochondrial inner membrane by pumping protons out of the mitochondrion. This force is used by the ATP synthase to synthesise ATP, the cellular energy currency.
Using the three-dimensional structures of the Fo and F1 domains of ATP synthase determined by Professor Sir John Walker and collaborators we constructed an accurate three-dimensional representation of the protein complex in LEGO. The model, consisting of approximately 15,000 LEGO bricks and built to a scale of 1:50,000,000, clearly shows the different functional domains of the complex. Participants were invited to build miniature LEGO models of the ATP synthase and complex I (the structure of which was solved in the laboratory of Dr. Sazanov).
Working together with designers Rachel Wingfield and Mathias Gmachl, we explored new ways of representing the molecular world at this year's Science Festival in Cambridge. We invited people to colour a 2.20 x 6 metre mural of a mitochondrial network. Children of all ages and adults engaged in this mitochondrial paint-by-numbers event. The first step was, via a computer test, to find out which colour each visitor preferred. The mural was divided into 300 hexagons. The areas in each hexagonal were coloured according to shades and numbers, leaving the final image of the mitochondrial network represented by a multi-coloured structure.
Inspired by the structure of the G-Surface or Gyroid a design was made by Loop.pH for the launch of the Mitochondrial Biology Unit on April 1, 2009. The structure was discovered in the early 1960s by Alan Schoen and is commonly found in liquid crystals and polymers and, although being much more periodic, shares one essential characteristic with mitochondria: it describes a complex membrane that elegantly bisects space.
One of the resources for the Design4Science exhibition, curated by principal lecturer Shirley Wheeler (Faculty of Arts, Design and Media, University of Sunderland), and now displayed at the Medical Museion at the University of Copenhagen, was the scientific results produced by John Walker on the ATP synthase. The exhibition is a mixture of the results from a national (British) design contest, commissions from professional designers, and original work done by scientists ranging from scientific hand drawn illustrations through to three-dimensional imagery. Designers were given the option to respond creatively to one of five important scientific breakthroughs arising from the work of molecular biologists. The internationally acclaimed young glass artist, Colin Rennie, made a representation of ATP synthase. By using a powerful water-jet cutter Rennie recreated the three-dimensional structure of the molecule in a 780-kilogram cube of glass layers measuring 1 metre across.
Travelling around Britain and Scandinavia the exhibition has reached a large and diverse audience.
Nature wrote about Rennie's ATP synthase glass model: "Wandering around the well-known protein and virus models that resulted, one much more recent piece stands out: a dizzying ghost of a protein molecule mounted in a block of glass." (Nature, 2008 452:155)
Loop.pH’s artworks investigate how scientific discoveries on a molecular level can be scaled up to architectural dimensions. The three dimensional model or space aids the understanding of complex form and enables a conversation about structure across different fields of art and science. Metabolic Media is the result of a collaboration between John Walker and the designers Rachel Wingfield and Mathias Gmachl, both from the design group Loop.pH. The design is inspired by the making of ATP and the scientific discoveries by John Walker. It is a mixture of woven and modular architectural structures, growing food plants, and solar cells.
Metabolic Media is part of the larger project Nobel Textiles – a larger collaboration between Nobel Laureates and researchers/designers from the University of the Arts London, Central Saint Martins College to create fabrics inspired by the scientific discoveries made by the Nobel Laureates. The work was exhibited as part of London Design Festival during September 2008 at the ICA and Saint James Park.
The Mitochondrial Biology Unit participates in the Cambridge Science Festival every year, and staff and students participating in the development of posters and events is very enthusiastic about it. As something new the posters this year was based on a highly visual design clearly emphasizing the importance of visuals in the research process as well as in the communication process. The posters explains how the body uses energy stored in food to produce ATP. To show how this works in principal, visitors were invited to try a special built bike to fill a cylinder with liquid and subsequently choose an apple or a malteser to cover the immediate energy consumption caused by powering the bike.
Marjorie Mikasen, an American artist who belongs to the “hard-edge” school of acrylic painting, attended a lecture given by John Walker in Lincoln, Nebraska and was inspired by the scientific results in ATP synthase to make the painting “Motive Force”. Marjorie takes her inspiration from science and technology, and her work has been widely exhibited in the United States and has been seen for example, at The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in New York.
The Mitochondrial Biology Unit is one of two main partners in a project that analyses how visualization is used in the creative process of scientific research and communication and, in the end, what makes a good scientific image. The objectives of this project is 1) to formalise ways of keeping the researchers in control through all stages of the scientific knowledge production by optimising the means of visual communication; and 2) in popular contexts, to analyse what makes a good image. Dealing with these problems is highly significant in order to make visual communication a matter of conscious choice, based on more than mere tacit conventions, and thus improve general communicative skills among researchers working on three-dimensional molecular structures.