Structure of dietary measurement error: results of the OPEN biomarker study.

TitleStructure of dietary measurement error: results of the OPEN biomarker study.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2003
AuthorsKipnis, V, Subar, AF, Midthune, D, Freedman, LS, Ballard-Barbash, R, Troiano, RP, Bingham, S, Schoeller, DA, Schatzkin, A, Carroll, RJ
JournalAm J Epidemiol
Pagination14-21; discussion 22-6
Date Published2003 Jul 01
KeywordsAdult, Aged, Bias, Biomarkers, Deuterium Oxide, Diet, Diet Surveys, Dietary Proteins, Energy Intake, Epidemiologic Methods, Female, Humans, Male, Maryland, Middle Aged, Models, Statistical, Reference Standards, Reproducibility of Results, Surveys and Questionnaires, Urea

Multiple-day food records or 24-hour dietary recalls (24HRs) are commonly used as "reference" instruments to calibrate food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and to adjust findings from nutritional epidemiologic studies for measurement error. Correct adjustment requires that the errors in the adopted reference instrument be independent of those in the FFQ and of true intake. The authors report data from the Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition (OPEN) Study, conducted from September 1999 to March 2000, in which valid reference biomarkers for energy (doubly labeled water) and protein (urinary nitrogen), together with a FFQ and 24HR, were observed in 484 healthy volunteers from Montgomery County, Maryland. Accounting for the reference biomarkers, the data suggest that the FFQ leads to severe attenuation in estimated disease relative risks for absolute protein or energy intake (a true relative risk of 2 would appear as 1.1 or smaller). For protein adjusted for energy intake by using either nutrient density or nutrient residuals, the attenuation is less severe (a relative risk of 2 would appear as approximately 1.3), lending weight to the use of energy adjustment. Using the 24HR as a reference instrument can seriously underestimate true attenuation (up to 60% for energy-adjusted protein). Results suggest that the interpretation of findings from FFQ-based epidemiologic studies of diet-disease associations needs to be reevaluated.

Alternate JournalAm. J. Epidemiol.
Citation Key10.1093/aje/kwg091
PubMed ID12835281
Grant ListCA-57030 / CA / NCI NIH HHS / United States
P30-E509106 / / PHS HHS / United States