|Title||Dietary fish intake and plasma phospholipid n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations in men and women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk United Kingdom cohort.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2006|
|Authors||Welch, AA, Bingham, SA, Ive, J, Friesen, MD, Wareham, NJ, Riboli, E, Khaw, KT|
|Journal||Am J Clin Nutr|
|Date Published||2006 Dec|
|Keywords||Adult, Aged, Animals, Cohort Studies, Coronary Disease, Diet, Diet Records, Diet Surveys, Dietary Supplements, Fatty Acids, Omega-3, Female, Fish Oils, Fishes, Food Habits, Great Britain, Humans, Male, Mental Recall, Middle Aged, Prospective Studies, Questionnaires, Risk Factors, Seafood, Sex Factors|
BACKGROUND: The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, found in fish and fish-oil supplements and also formed by conversion of alpha-linolenic acid in soy and rapeseed (canola) oils, are thought to have cardioprotective effects.
OBJECTIVE: Because the relative feasibility and measurement error of dietary methods varies, this study compared fish and fish-oil intakes obtained from 4 dietary methods with plasma n-3 PUFAs in men and women in a general population.
DESIGN: The study participants were 4949 men and women aged 40-79 y from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk United Kingdom cohort. Measurements of plasma phospholipid n-3 PUFA concentrations and fish intakes were made with the use of 4 dietary methods (food-frequency questionnaire, health and lifestyle questionnaire, 7-d diary, and first-day recall from the 7-d diary).
RESULTS: Amounts of fish consumed and relations with plasma phospholipid n-3 PUFAs were not substantially different between the 4 dietary methods. Plasma n-3 PUFA concentrations were significantly higher in women than in men, were 20% higher in fish-oil consumers than in non-fish-oil consumers, and were twice as high in fatty fish consumers as in total fish consumers. Only approximately 25% of the variation in plasma n-3 PUFA was explained by fish and fish-oil consumption.
CONCLUSIONS: This large study found no substantial differences between dietary methods and observed clear sex differences in plasma n-3 PUFAs. Because variation in n-3 PUFA was only partially determined by fish and fish-oil consumption, this could explain the inconsistent results of observational and intervention studies on coronary artery disease protection.
|Alternate Journal||Am. J. Clin. Nutr.|
|Grant List||G0401527 / / Medical Research Council / United Kingdom |
MC_U106179471 / / Medical Research Council / United Kingdom
/ / Wellcome Trust / United Kingdom