Synthesis and characterization of a triphenylphosphonium-conjugated peroxidase mimetic. Insights into the interaction of ebselen with mitochondria.

TitleSynthesis and characterization of a triphenylphosphonium-conjugated peroxidase mimetic. Insights into the interaction of ebselen with mitochondria.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2005
AuthorsFilipovska, A, Kelso, GF, Brown, SE, Beer, SM, Smith, RAJ, Murphy, MP
JournalJ Biol Chem
Date Published2005 Jun 24
KeywordsAnimals, Azoles, Glutathione, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Mitochondria, Liver, Molecular Mimicry, Organoselenium Compounds, Oxidation-Reduction, Peroxidase, Rats, Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization, Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet, Thioredoxins

Mitochondrial production of peroxides is a critical event in both pathology and redox signaling. Consequently their selective degradation within mitochondria is of considerable interest. Here we have explored the interaction of the peroxidase mimetic ebselen with mitochondria. We were particularly interested in whether ebselen was activated by mitochondrial glutathione (GSH) and thioredoxin, in determining whether an ebselen moiety could be targeted to mitochondria by conjugating it to a lipophilic cation, and in exploring the nature of ebselen binding to mitochondrial proteins. To achieve these goals we synthesized 2-[4-(4-triphenylphosphoniobutoxy) phenyl]-1,2-benzisoselenazol)-3(2H)-one iodide (MitoPeroxidase), which contains an ebselen moiety covalently linked to a triphenylphosphonium (TPP) cation. The fixed positive charge of TPP facilitated mass spectrometric analysis, which showed that the ebselen moiety was reduced by GSH to the selenol form and that subsequent reaction with a peroxide reformed the ebselen moiety. MitoPeroxidase and ebselen were effective antioxidants that degraded phospholipid hydroperoxides, prevented lipid peroxidation, and protected mitochondria from oxidative damage. Both peroxidase mimetics required activation by mitochondrial GSH or thioredoxin to be effective antioxidants. Surprisingly, conjugation to the TPP cation led to only a slight increase in the uptake of ebselen by mitochondria due to covalent binding of the ebselen moiety to proteins. Using antiserum against the TPP moiety we visualized those proteins covalently attached to the ebselen moiety. This analysis indicated that much of the ebselen present within mitochondria is bound to protein thiols through reversible selenenylsulfide bonds. Both MitoPeroxidase and ebselen decreased apoptosis induced by oxidative stress, suggesting that they can decrease mitochondrial oxidative stress. This exploration has led to new insights into the behavior of peroxidase mimetics within mitochondria and to their use in investigating mitochondrial oxidative damage.

Alternate JournalJ. Biol. Chem.
Citation Key10.1074/jbc.M501148200
PubMed ID15831495