Modulation of the oligomerization state of the bovine F1-ATPase inhibitor protein, IF1, by pH.

TitleModulation of the oligomerization state of the bovine F1-ATPase inhibitor protein, IF1, by pH.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2000
AuthorsCabezón, E, Butler, PJ, Runswick, MJ, Walker, JE
JournalJ Biol Chem
Date Published2000 Aug 18
KeywordsAmino Acid Sequence, Amino Acids, Animals, Cattle, Cross-Linking Reagents, Dimerization, Escherichia coli, Histidine, Hydrogen-Ion Concentration, Lysine, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Molecular Sequence Data, Mutagenesis, Site-Directed, Plasmids, Protein Binding, Protein Structure, Tertiary, Proteins, Proton-Translocating ATPases, Recombinant Proteins, Sequence Homology, Amino Acid, Ultracentrifugation

Bovine IF(1), a basic protein of 84 amino acids, is involved in the regulation of the catalytic activity of the F(1) domain of ATP synthase. At pH 6.5, but not at basic pH values, it inhibits the ATP hydrolase activity of the enzyme. The oligomeric state of bovine IF(1) has been investigated at various pH values by sedimentation equilibrium analytical ultracentrifugation and by covalent cross-linking. Both techniques confirm that the protein forms a tetramer at pH 8, and below pH 6.5, the protein is predominantly dimeric. By covalent cross-linking, it has been found that at pH 8.0 the fragment of IF(1) consisting of residues 44-84 forms a dimer, whereas the fragment from residues 32-84 is tetrameric. Therefore, some or all of the residues between positions 32 and 43 are necessary for tetramer formation and are involved in the pH-sensitive interconversion between dimer and tetramer. One important residue in the interconversion is histidine 49. Mutation of this residue to lysine abolishes the pH-dependent activation-inactivation, and the mutant protein is active and dimeric at all pH values investigated. It is likely from NMR studies that the inhibitor protein dimerizes by forming an antiparallel alpha-helical coiled-coil over its C-terminal region and that at high pH values, where the protein is tetrameric, the inhibitory regions are masked. The mutation of histidine 49 to lysine is predicted to abolish coiled-coil formation over residues 32-43 preventing interaction between two dimers, forcing the equilibrium toward the dimeric state, thereby freeing the N-terminal inhibitory regions and allowing them to interact with F(1).

Alternate JournalJ. Biol. Chem.
Citation Key10.1074/jbc.M003859200
PubMed ID10831597