Human mitochondrial DNA replication.

TitleHuman mitochondrial DNA replication.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2012
AuthorsHolt, IJ, Reyes, A
JournalCold Spring Harb Perspect Biol
Date Published2012 Dec 01
KeywordsDNA Replication, DNA, Mitochondrial, Genome, Mitochondrial, Humans, Models, Biological, RNA, RNA, Mitochondrial

Elucidation of the process of DNA replication in mitochondria is in its infancy. For many years, maintenance of the mitochondrial genome was regarded as greatly simplified compared to the nucleus. Mammalian mitochondria were reported to lack all DNA repair systems, to eschew DNA recombination, and to possess but a single DNA polymerase, polymerase γ. Polγ was said to replicate mitochondrial DNA exclusively via one mechanism, involving only two priming events and a handful of proteins. In this "strand-displacement model," leading strand DNA synthesis begins at a specific site and advances approximately two-thirds of the way around the molecule before DNA synthesis is initiated on the "lagging" strand. Although the displaced strand was long-held to be coated with protein, RNA has more recently been proposed in its place. Furthermore, mitochondrial DNA molecules with all the features of products of conventional bidirectional replication have been documented, suggesting that the process and regulation of replication in mitochondria is complex, as befits a genome that is a core factor in human health and longevity.

Alternate JournalCold Spring Harb Perspect Biol
Citation Key10.1101/cshperspect.a012971
PubMed ID23143808
PubMed Central IDPMC3504440
Grant ListMC_U105663140 / / Medical Research Council / United Kingdom